Skip to main content

Representasi Tree Dalam SQL Oracle

Terima kasih kepada Philip Greenspun atas tutorialnya


Sumber : http://philip.greenspun.com/sql/trees.html


On its face, the relational database management system would appear to be a very poor tool for representing and manipulating trees. This chapter is designed to accomplish the following things:
  • show you that a row in an SQL database can be thought of as an object
  • show you that a pointer from one object to another can be represented by storing an integer key in a regular database column
  • demonstrate the Oracle tree extensions (CONNECT BY ... PRIOR)
  • show you how to work around the limitations of CONNECT BY with PL/SQL
The canonical example of trees in Oracle is the org chart.

create table corporate_slaves (
       slave_id		      integer primary key,
       supervisor_id	      references corporate_slaves,
       name		      varchar(100)
);

insert into corporate_slaves values (1, NULL, 'Big Boss Man');
insert into corporate_slaves values (2, 1, 'VP Marketing');
insert into corporate_slaves values (3, 1, 'VP Sales');
insert into corporate_slaves values (4, 3, 'Joe Sales Guy');
insert into corporate_slaves values (5, 4, 'Bill Sales Assistant');
insert into corporate_slaves values (6, 1, 'VP Engineering');
insert into corporate_slaves values (7, 6, 'Jane Nerd');
insert into corporate_slaves values (8, 6, 'Bob Nerd');

SQL> column name format a20
SQL> select * from corporate_slaves;

  SLAVE_ID SUPERVISOR_ID NAME
---------- ------------- --------------------
	 1		 Big Boss Man
	 2	       1 VP Marketing
	 3	       1 VP Sales
	 4	       3 Joe Sales Guy
	 6	       1 VP Engineering
	 7	       6 Jane Nerd
	 8	       6 Bob Nerd
	 5	       4 Bill Sales Assistant

8 rows selected.
The integers in the supervisor_id are actually pointers to other rows in the corporate_slaves table. Need to display an org chart? With only standard SQL available, you'd write a program in the client language (e.g., C, Lisp, Perl, or Tcl) to do the following:
  1. query Oracle to find the employee where supervisor_id is null, call this $big_kahuna_id
  2. query Oracle to find those employees whose supervisor_id = $big_kahuna_id
  3. for each subordinate, query Oracle again to find their subordinates.
  4. repeat until no subordinates found, then back up one level
With the Oracle CONNECT BY clause, you can get all the rows out at once:

select name, slave_id, supervisor_id
from corporate_slaves
connect by prior slave_id = supervisor_id;

NAME		       SLAVE_ID SUPERVISOR_ID
-------------------- ---------- -------------
Big Boss Man		      1
VP Marketing		      2 	    1
VP Sales		      3 	    1
Joe Sales Guy		      4 	    3
Bill Sales Assistant	      5 	    4
VP Engineering		      6 	    1
Jane Nerd		      7 	    6
Bob Nerd		      8 	    6

VP Marketing		      2 	    1

VP Sales		      3 	    1
Joe Sales Guy		      4 	    3
Bill Sales Assistant	      5 	    4

Joe Sales Guy		      4 	    3
Bill Sales Assistant	      5 	    4

VP Engineering		      6 	    1
Jane Nerd		      7 	    6
Bob Nerd		      8 	    6

Jane Nerd		      7 	    6

Bob Nerd		      8 	    6

Bill Sales Assistant	      5 	    4

20 rows selected.
This seems a little strange. It looks as though Oracle has produced all possible trees and subtrees. Let's add a START WITH clause:

select name, slave_id, supervisor_id
from corporate_slaves
connect by prior slave_id = supervisor_id
start with slave_id in (select slave_id 
                        from corporate_slaves 
                        where supervisor_id is null);

NAME		       SLAVE_ID SUPERVISOR_ID
-------------------- ---------- -------------
Big Boss Man		      1
VP Marketing		      2 	    1
VP Sales		      3 	    1
Joe Sales Guy		      4 	    3
Bill Sales Assistant	      5 	    4
VP Engineering		      6 	    1
Jane Nerd		      7 	    6
Bob Nerd		      8 	    6

8 rows selected.
Notice that we've used a subquery in the START WITH clause to find out who is/are the big kahuna(s). For the rest of this example, we'll just hard-code in the slave_id 1 for brevity.
Though these folks are in the correct order, it is kind of tough to tell from the preceding report who works for whom. Oracle provides a magic pseudo-column that is meaningful only when a query includes a CONNECT BY. The pseudo-column is level:

select name, slave_id, supervisor_id, level
from corporate_slaves
connect by prior slave_id = supervisor_id
start with slave_id = 1;

NAME		       SLAVE_ID SUPERVISOR_ID	   LEVEL
-------------------- ---------- ------------- ----------
Big Boss Man		      1 		       1
VP Marketing		      2 	    1	       2
VP Sales		      3 	    1	       2
Joe Sales Guy		      4 	    3	       3
Bill Sales Assistant	      5 	    4	       4
VP Engineering		      6 	    1	       2
Jane Nerd		      7 	    6	       3
Bob Nerd		      8 	    6	       3

8 rows selected.
The level column can be used for indentation. Here we will use the concatenation operator (||) to add spaces in front of the name column:

column padded_name format a30

select 
  lpad(' ', (level - 1) * 2) || name as padded_name, 
  slave_id, 
  supervisor_id, 
  level
from corporate_slaves
connect by prior slave_id = supervisor_id
start with slave_id = 1;

PADDED_NAME			 SLAVE_ID SUPERVISOR_ID      LEVEL
------------------------------ ---------- ------------- ----------
Big Boss Man				1			 1
  VP Marketing				2	      1 	 2
  VP Sales				3	      1 	 2
    Joe Sales Guy			4	      3 	 3
      Bill Sales Assistant		5	      4 	 4
  VP Engineering			6	      1 	 2
    Jane Nerd				7	      6 	 3
    Bob Nerd				8	      6 	 3

8 rows selected.
If you want to limit your report, you can use standard WHERE clauses:

select 
  lpad(' ', (level - 1) * 2) || name as padded_name, 
  slave_id, 
  supervisor_id, 
  level
from corporate_slaves
where level <= 3
connect by prior slave_id = supervisor_id
start with slave_id = 1;

PADDED_NAME			 SLAVE_ID SUPERVISOR_ID      LEVEL
------------------------------ ---------- ------------- ----------
Big Boss Man				1			 1
  VP Marketing				2	      1 	 2
  VP Sales				3	      1 	 2
    Joe Sales Guy			4	      3 	 3
  VP Engineering			6	      1 	 2
    Jane Nerd				7	      6 	 3
    Bob Nerd				8	      6 	 3

7 rows selected.
Suppose that you want people at the same level to sort alphabetically. Sadly, the ORDER BY clause doesn't work so great in conjunction with CONNECT BY:

select 
  lpad(' ', (level - 1) * 2) || name as padded_name, 
  slave_id, 
  supervisor_id, 
  level
from corporate_slaves
connect by prior slave_id = supervisor_id
start with slave_id = 1
order by level, name;

PADDED_NAME			 SLAVE_ID SUPERVISOR_ID      LEVEL
------------------------------ ---------- ------------- ----------
Big Boss Man				1			 1
  VP Engineering			6	      1 	 2
  VP Marketing				2	      1 	 2
  VP Sales				3	      1 	 2
    Bob Nerd				8	      6 	 3
    Jane Nerd				7	      6 	 3
    Joe Sales Guy			4	      3 	 3
      Bill Sales Assistant		5	      4 	 4

select 
  lpad(' ', (level - 1) * 2) || name as padded_name, 
  slave_id, 
  supervisor_id, 
  level
from corporate_slaves
connect by prior slave_id = supervisor_id
start with slave_id = 1
order by name;

PADDED_NAME			 SLAVE_ID SUPERVISOR_ID      LEVEL
------------------------------ ---------- ------------- ----------
Big Boss Man				1			 1
      Bill Sales Assistant		5	      4 	 4
    Bob Nerd				8	      6 	 3
    Jane Nerd				7	      6 	 3
    Joe Sales Guy			4	      3 	 3
  VP Engineering			6	      1 	 2
  VP Marketing				2	      1 	 2
  VP Sales				3	      1 	 2
SQL is a set-oriented language. In the result of a CONNECT BY query, it is precisely the order that has value. Thus it doesn't make much sense to also have an ORDER BY clause.

JOIN doesn't work with CONNECT BY

If we try to build a report showing each employee and his or her supervisor's name, we are treated to one of Oracle's few informative error messages:

select 
  lpad(' ', (level - 1) * 2) || cs1.name as padded_name, 
  cs2.name as supervisor_name 
from corporate_slaves cs1, corporate_slaves cs2
where cs1.supervisor_id = cs2.slave_id(+)
connect by prior cs1.slave_id = cs1.supervisor_id
start with cs1.slave_id = 1;

ERROR at line 4:
ORA-01437: cannot have join with CONNECT BY
We can work around this particular problem by creating a view:

create or replace view connected_slaves 
as
select 
  lpad(' ', (level - 1) * 2) || name as padded_name, 
  slave_id, 
  supervisor_id, 
  level as the_level
from corporate_slaves
connect by prior slave_id = supervisor_id
start with slave_id = 1;
Notice that we've had to rename level so that we didn't end up with a view column named after a reserved word. The view works just like the raw query:

select * from connected_slaves;

PADDED_NAME			 SLAVE_ID SUPERVISOR_ID  THE_LEVEL
------------------------------ ---------- ------------- ----------
Big Boss Man				1			 1
  VP Marketing				2	      1 	 2
  VP Sales				3	      1 	 2
    Joe Sales Guy			4	      3 	 3
      Bill Sales Assistant		5	      4 	 4
  VP Engineering			6	      1 	 2
    Jane Nerd				7	      6 	 3
    Bob Nerd				8	      6 	 3

8 rows selected.
but we can JOIN now

select padded_name, corporate_slaves.name as supervisor_name
from connected_slaves, corporate_slaves
where connected_slaves.supervisor_id = corporate_slaves.slave_id(+);

PADDED_NAME		       SUPERVISOR_NAME
------------------------------ --------------------
Big Boss Man
  VP Marketing		       Big Boss Man
  VP Sales		       Big Boss Man
    Joe Sales Guy	       VP Sales
      Bill Sales Assistant     Joe Sales Guy
  VP Engineering	       Big Boss Man
    Jane Nerd		       VP Engineering
    Bob Nerd		       VP Engineering

8 rows selected.
If you have sharp eyes, you'll notice that we've actually OUTER JOINed so that our results don't exclude the big boss.

Select-list subqueries do work with CONNECT BY

Instead of the VIEW and JOIN, we could have added a subquery to the select list:

select 
  lpad(' ', (level - 1) * 2) || name as padded_name, 
  (select name 
   from corporate_slaves cs2
   where cs2.slave_id = cs1.supervisor_id) as supervisor_name
from corporate_slaves cs1
connect by prior slave_id = supervisor_id
start with slave_id = 1;

PADDED_NAME		       SUPERVISOR_NAME
------------------------------ --------------------
Big Boss Man
  VP Marketing		       Big Boss Man
  VP Sales		       Big Boss Man
    Joe Sales Guy	       VP Sales
      Bill Sales Assistant     Joe Sales Guy
  VP Engineering	       Big Boss Man
    Jane Nerd		       VP Engineering
    Bob Nerd		       VP Engineering

8 rows selected.
The general rule in Oracle is that you can have a subquery that returns a single row anywhere in the select list.

Does this person work for me?

Suppose that you've built an intranet Web service. There are things that your software should show to an employee's boss (or boss's boss) that it shouldn't show to a subordinate or peer. Here we try to figure out if the VP Marketing (#2) has supervisory authority over Jane Nerd (#7):

select count(*) 
from corporate_slaves
where slave_id = 7
and level > 1
start with slave_id = 2
connect by prior slave_id = supervisor_id;

  COUNT(*)
----------
	 0
Apparently not. Notice that we start with the VP Marketing (#2) and stipulate level > 1 to be sure that we will never conclude that someone supervises him or herself. Let's ask if the Big Boss Man (#1) has authority over Jane Nerd:

select count(*) 
from corporate_slaves
where slave_id = 7
and level > 1
start with slave_id = 1
connect by prior slave_id = supervisor_id;

  COUNT(*)
----------
	 1
Even though Big Boss Man isn't Jane Nerd's direct supervisor, asking Oracle to compute the relevant subtree yields us the correct result. In the ArsDigita Community System Intranet module, we decided that this computation was too important to be left as a query in individual Web pages. We centralized the question in a PL/SQL procedure:

create or replace function intranet_supervises_p
  (query_supervisor IN integer, query_user_id IN integer)
return varchar
is
  n_rows_found integer;
BEGIN
  select count(*) into n_rows_found
   from intranet_users
   where user_id = query_user_id
   and level > 1
   start with user_id = query_supervisor
   connect by supervisor = PRIOR user_id;
  if n_rows_found > 0 then 
	return 't';
  else 
	return 'f';  
  end if;
END intranet_supervises_p;

Family trees

What if the graph is a little more complicated than employee-supervisor? For example, suppose that you are representing a family tree. Even without allowing for divorce and remarriage, exotic South African fertility clinics, etc., we still need more than one pointer for each node:

create table family_relatives (
	relative_id	integer primary key,
	spouse		references family_relatives,
	mother		references family_relatives,
	father		references family_relatives,
	-- in case they don't know the exact birthdate
	birthyear	integer,
	birthday	date,
	-- sadly, not everyone is still with us
	deathyear	integer,
	first_names	varchar(100) not null,
	last_name	varchar(100) not null,
	sex		char(1) check (sex in ('m','f')),
	-- note the use of multi-column check constraints
	check ( birthyear is not null or birthday is not null)
);

-- some test data 


insert into family_relatives 
(relative_id, first_names, last_name, sex, spouse, mother, father, birthyear)
values
(1, 'Nick', 'Gittes', 'm', NULL, NULL, NULL, 1902);

insert into family_relatives 
(relative_id, first_names, last_name, sex, spouse, mother, father, birthyear)
values
(2, 'Cecile', 'Kaplan', 'f', 1, NULL, NULL, 1910);

update family_relatives 
set spouse = 2 
where relative_id = 1;

insert into family_relatives 
(relative_id, first_names, last_name, sex, spouse, mother, father, birthyear)
values
(3, 'Regina', 'Gittes', 'f', NULL, 2, 1, 1934);

insert into family_relatives 
(relative_id, first_names, last_name, sex, spouse, mother, father, birthyear)
values
(4, 'Marjorie', 'Gittes', 'f', NULL, 2, 1, 1936);

insert into family_relatives 
(relative_id, first_names, last_name, sex, spouse, mother, father, birthyear)
values
(5, 'Shirley', 'Greenspun', 'f', NULL, NULL, NULL, 1901);

insert into family_relatives 
(relative_id, first_names, last_name, sex, spouse, mother, father, birthyear)
values
(6, 'Jack', 'Greenspun', 'm', 5, NULL, NULL, 1900);

update family_relatives 
set spouse = 6
where relative_id = 5;

insert into family_relatives 
(relative_id, first_names, last_name, sex, spouse, mother, father, birthyear)
values
(7, 'Nathaniel', 'Greenspun', 'm', 3, 5, 6, 1930);

update family_relatives 
set spouse = 7
where relative_id = 3;

insert into family_relatives 
(relative_id, first_names, last_name, sex, spouse, mother, father, birthyear)
values
(8, 'Suzanne', 'Greenspun', 'f', NULL, 3, 7, 1961);

insert into family_relatives 
(relative_id, first_names, last_name, sex, spouse, mother, father, birthyear)
values
(9, 'Philip', 'Greenspun', 'm', NULL, 3, 7, 1963);

insert into family_relatives 
(relative_id, first_names, last_name, sex, spouse, mother, father, birthyear)
values
(10, 'Harry', 'Greenspun', 'm', NULL, 3, 7, 1965);
In applying the lessons from the employee examples, the most obvious problem that we face now is whether to follow the mother or the father pointers:

column full_name format a25

-- follow patrilineal (start with my mom's father)
select lpad(' ', (level - 1) * 2) || first_names || ' ' || last_name as full_name
from family_relatives 
connect by prior relative_id = father
start with relative_id = 1;

FULL_NAME
-------------------------
Nick Gittes
  Regina Gittes
  Marjorie Gittes

-- follow matrilineal (start with my mom's mother)
select lpad(' ', (level - 1) * 2) || first_names || ' ' || last_name as full_name
from family_relatives 
connect by prior relative_id = mother
start with relative_id = 2;

FULL_NAME
-------------------------
Cecile Kaplan
  Regina Gittes
    Suzanne Greenspun
    Philip Greenspun
    Harry Greenspun
  Marjorie Gittes
Here's what the official Oracle docs have to say about CONNECT BY:
specifies the relationship between parent rows and child rows of the hierarchy. condition can be any condition as described in "Conditions". However, some part of the condition must use the PRIOR operator to refer to the parent row. The part of the condition containing the PRIOR operator must have one of the following forms:
PRIOR expr comparison_operator expr 
expr comparison_operator PRIOR expr 
There is nothing that says comparison_operator has to be merely the equals sign. Let's start again with my mom's father but CONNECT BY more than one column:

-- follow both
select lpad(' ', (level - 1) * 2) || first_names || ' ' || last_name as full_name
from family_relatives 
connect by prior relative_id in (mother, father)
start with relative_id = 1;

FULL_NAME
-------------------------
Nick Gittes
  Regina Gittes
    Suzanne Greenspun
    Philip Greenspun
    Harry Greenspun
  Marjorie Gittes
Instead of arbitrarily starting with Grandpa Nick, let's ask Oracle to show us all the trees that start with a person whose parents are unknown:

select lpad(' ', (level - 1) * 2) || first_names || ' ' || last_name as full_name
from family_relatives 
connect by prior relative_id in (mother, father)
start with relative_id in (select relative_id from family_relatives
                           where mother is null
                           and father is null);

FULL_NAME
-------------------------
Nick Gittes
  Regina Gittes
    Suzanne Greenspun
    Philip Greenspun
    Harry Greenspun
  Marjorie Gittes
Cecile Kaplan
  Regina Gittes
    Suzanne Greenspun
    Philip Greenspun
    Harry Greenspun
  Marjorie Gittes
Shirley Greenspun
  Nathaniel Greenspun
    Suzanne Greenspun
    Philip Greenspun
    Harry Greenspun
Jack Greenspun
  Nathaniel Greenspun
    Suzanne Greenspun
    Philip Greenspun
    Harry Greenspun

22 rows selected.

PL/SQL instead of JOIN

The preceding report is interesting but confusing because it is hard to tell where the trees meet in marriage. As noted above, you can't do a JOIN with a CONNECT BY. We demonstrated the workaround of burying the CONNECT BY in a view. A more general workaround is using PL/SQL:

create or replace function family_spouse_name 
  (v_relative_id family_relatives.relative_id%TYPE)
return varchar
is
  v_spouse_id integer;
  spouse_name varchar(500);
BEGIN
  select spouse into v_spouse_id 
    from family_relatives
    where relative_id = v_relative_id;
  if v_spouse_id is null then
    return null;
  else 
    select (first_names || ' ' || last_name) into spouse_name
      from family_relatives
      where relative_id = v_spouse_id;
    return spouse_name;
  end if;
END family_spouse_name;
/
show errors

column spouse format a20

select 
  lpad(' ', (level - 1) * 2) || first_names || ' ' || last_name as full_name,
  family_spouse_name(relative_id) as spouse
from family_relatives 
connect by prior relative_id in (mother, father)
start with relative_id in (select relative_id from family_relatives
                           where mother is null
                           and father is null);

FULL_NAME		  SPOUSE
------------------------- --------------------
Nick Gittes		  Cecile Kaplan
  Regina Gittes 	  Nathaniel Greenspun
    Suzanne Greenspun
    Philip Greenspun
    Harry Greenspun
  Marjorie Gittes
Cecile Kaplan		  Nick Gittes
  Regina Gittes 	  Nathaniel Greenspun
    Suzanne Greenspun
    Philip Greenspun
    Harry Greenspun
  Marjorie Gittes
Shirley Greenspun	  Jack Greenspun
  Nathaniel Greenspun	  Regina Gittes
    Suzanne Greenspun
    Philip Greenspun
    Harry Greenspun
Jack Greenspun		  Shirley Greenspun
  Nathaniel Greenspun	  Regina Gittes
    Suzanne Greenspun
    Philip Greenspun
    Harry Greenspun

PL/SQL instead of JOIN and GROUP BY

Suppose that in addition to displaying the family tree in a Web page, we also want to show a flag when a story about a family member is available. First we need a way to represent stories:

create table family_stories (
	family_story_id		integer primary key,
	story			clob not null,
	item_date		date,
	item_year		integer,
	access_control		varchar(20)
             check (access_control in ('public', 'family', 'designated')),
	check (item_date is not null or item_year is not null)
);

-- a story might be about more than one person
create table family_story_relative_map (
	family_story_id		references family_stories,
	relative_id		references family_relatives,
	primary key (relative_id, family_story_id)
);

-- put in a test story
insert into family_stories
(family_story_id, story, item_year, access_control)
values
(1, 'After we were born, our parents stuck the Wedgwood in a cabinet 
and bought indestructible china.  Philip and his father were sitting at
the breakfast table one morning.  Suzanne came downstairs and, without
saying a word, took a cereal bowl from the cupboard, walked over to 
Philip and broke the bowl over his head.  Their father immediately
started laughing hysterically.', 1971, 'public');

insert into family_story_relative_map 
(family_story_id, relative_id)
values
(1, 8);

insert into family_story_relative_map 
(family_story_id, relative_id)
values
(1, 9);

insert into family_story_relative_map 
(family_story_id, relative_id)
values
(1, 7);
To show the number of stories alongside a family member's listing, we would typically do an OUTER JOIN and then GROUP BY the columns other than the count(family_story_id). In order not to disturb the CONNECT BY, however, we create another PL/SQL function:

create or replace function family_n_stories (v_relative_id family_relatives.relative_id%TYPE)
return integer
is
  n_stories integer;
BEGIN
  select count(*) into n_stories 
    from family_story_relative_map 
    where relative_id = v_relative_id;
  return n_stories;
END family_n_stories;
/
show errors

select 
  lpad(' ', (level - 1) * 2) || first_names || ' ' || last_name as full_name, 
  family_n_stories(relative_id) as n_stories
from family_relatives 
connect by prior relative_id in (mother, father)
start with relative_id in (select relative_id from family_relatives
                           where mother is null
                           and father is null);

FULL_NAME		   N_STORIES
------------------------- ----------
Nick Gittes			   0
...
Shirley Greenspun		   0
  Nathaniel Greenspun		   1
    Suzanne Greenspun		   1
    Philip Greenspun		   1
    Harry Greenspun		   0
...

Working Backwards

What does it look like to start at the youngest generation and work back?

select 
  lpad(' ', (level - 1) * 2) || first_names || ' ' || last_name as full_name,
  family_spouse_name(relative_id) as spouse
from family_relatives 
connect by relative_id in (prior mother, prior father)
start with relative_id = 9;

FULL_NAME		  SPOUSE
------------------------- --------------------
Philip Greenspun
  Regina Gittes 	  Nathaniel Greenspun
    Nick Gittes 	  Cecile Kaplan
    Cecile Kaplan	  Nick Gittes
  Nathaniel Greenspun	  Regina Gittes
    Shirley Greenspun	  Jack Greenspun
    Jack Greenspun	  Shirley Greenspun
We ought to be able to view all the trees starting from all the leaves but Oracle seems to be exhibiting strange behavior:

select 
  lpad(' ', (level - 1) * 2) || first_names || ' ' || last_name as full_name,
  family_spouse_name(relative_id) as spouse
from family_relatives 
connect by relative_id in (prior mother, prior father)
start with relative_id not in (select mother from family_relatives 
                               union 
                               select father from family_relatives);

no rows selected
What's wrong? If we try the subquery by itself, we get a reasonable result. Here are all the relative_ids that appear in the mother or father column at least once.

select mother from family_relatives 
union 
select father from family_relatives

    MOTHER
----------
	 1
	 2
	 3
	 5
	 6
	 7


7 rows selected.
The answer lies in that extra blank line at the bottom. There is a NULL in this result set. Experimentation reveals that Oracle behaves asymmetrically with NULLs and IN and NOT IN:

SQL> select * from dual where 1 in (1,2,3,NULL);

D
-
X

SQL> select * from dual where 1 not in (2,3,NULL);

no rows selected
The answer is buried in the Oracle documentation of NOT IN: "Evaluates to FALSE if any member of the set is NULL." The correct query in this case?

select 
  lpad(' ', (level - 1) * 2) || first_names || ' ' || last_name as full_name,
  family_spouse_name(relative_id) as spouse
from family_relatives 
connect by relative_id in (prior mother, prior father)
start with relative_id not in (select mother 
                               from family_relatives 
                               where mother is not null
                               union 
                               select father
                               from family_relatives 
                               where father is not null);

FULL_NAME		  SPOUSE
------------------------- --------------------
Marjorie Gittes
  Nick Gittes		  Cecile Kaplan
  Cecile Kaplan 	  Nick Gittes
Suzanne Greenspun
  Regina Gittes 	  Nathaniel Greenspun
    Nick Gittes 	  Cecile Kaplan
    Cecile Kaplan	  Nick Gittes
  Nathaniel Greenspun	  Regina Gittes
    Shirley Greenspun	  Jack Greenspun
    Jack Greenspun	  Shirley Greenspun
Philip Greenspun
  Regina Gittes 	  Nathaniel Greenspun
    Nick Gittes 	  Cecile Kaplan
    Cecile Kaplan	  Nick Gittes
  Nathaniel Greenspun	  Regina Gittes
    Shirley Greenspun	  Jack Greenspun
    Jack Greenspun	  Shirley Greenspun
Harry Greenspun
  Regina Gittes 	  Nathaniel Greenspun
    Nick Gittes 	  Cecile Kaplan
    Cecile Kaplan	  Nick Gittes
  Nathaniel Greenspun	  Regina Gittes
    Shirley Greenspun	  Jack Greenspun
    Jack Greenspun	  Shirley Greenspun

24 rows selected.

Performance and Tuning

Oracle is not getting any help from the Tree Fairy in producing results from a CONNECT BY. If you don't want tree queries to take O(N^2) time, you need to build indices that let Oracle very quickly answer questions of the form "What are all the children of Parent X?"
For the corporate slaves table, you'd want two concatenated indices:

create index corporate_slaves_idx1 
  on corporate_slaves (slave_id, supervisor_id);
create index corporate_slaves_idx2 
  on corporate_slaves (supervisor_id, slave_id);

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Istilah Makanan, Minuman, dll dalam MOS / OSPEK

Bagi Adik-adik yang baru masuk ke sekolah atau universitas baru. Mungkin mendapatkan tugas yang sulit dari kakak pembina pada saat MOS / OSPEK.

Nah, sebagai permulaan, dijelasin dulu ya, apa itu MOS dan OSPEK. Baru nanti kita melanjutkan ke Istilah yang ditunggu.

Masa Orientasi Siswa atau disingkat MOS atau sering disebut juga Masa Pengenalan Lingkungan Sekolah (disingkat MPLS) merupakan sebuah kegiatan yang umum dilaksanakan di sekolah guna menyambut kedatangan siswa baru.
Masa orientasi lazim kita jumpai hampir di tiap sekolah, mulai dari tingkat SMP, SMA hingga perguruan tinggi. Tak pandang itu sekolah negeri maupun swasta, semua menggunakan cara itu untuk mengenalkan almamater pada siswa barunya.
MOS dijadikan sebagai ajang untuk melatih ketahanan mental, disiplin dan mempererat tali persaudaraan. MOS juga sering dipakai sebagai sarana perkenalan siswa terhadap lingkungan baru di sekolah tersebut. Baik itu perkenalan dengan sesama siswa baru, kakak kelas, guru hingga karyawan lainn…

Pusar Udel Berair atau Sakit dan Berbau

Sudah lama nih saya mencari artikel tentang sakit pusar atau pusar berbau. Dulu saat awal pertama pusar sakit, rasanya tidak karuan, setelah periksa ke dokter katanya ada infeksi, akhirnya diberilah saya antibiotik, obat penghilang rasa sakit, dan satu obat alergi obat. Namun setelah rasa sakit itu hilang, sekarang kok masih tersisa bau yang dahsyat dari perut saya, kata istri saya seperti bau terasi. Baiklah, tanpa panjang lebar, silakan disimak artikel dari http://christinarwen.blogspot.com.  Pusar atau udel jarang sekali mendapat perhatian untuk dibersihkan, padahal menjaga kebersihan area pusar sama pentingnya dengan mencuci tangan atau kaki. Beberapa kondisi bahkan membuat pusar berbau busuk dan tidak sedap. Apa saja?
Pusar atau secara medis disebut umbilikus pada dasarnya merupakan bekas luka setelah kelahiran. Kebanyakan orang tidak menaruh perhatian khusus pada pusar. Tetapi ada keadaan tertentu yang mengharuskan Anda memperhatikan pusar secara penuh. Salah …

Pertanyaan Calon Mertua Sebelum Lamaran

Terima kasih kepada agan AaGuru yant telah membagi artikelnya di kaskus. Silakan disimak

Biasanya setelah anda sudah cukup lama berkenalan atau pacaran dengan doi anda, dan camer anda sudah merasa bahwa hubungan anda harus dipikirkan mau kemana nantinya, anda akan di interview sama camer anda pada suatu waktu untuk mengetahui seberapa serius anda dengan anaknya.

Sikap dan gerak tubuh yang diperlukan :

1. Sikap dan gerak tubuh anda sama halnya anda melamar kerjaan, jadi harus penuh keyakinan dan optimis
2. Saat pertama kali datang dan bertemu, sebaiknya anda memberikan salam dan cium tangan mereka, karena kita adalah orang timur yg senantiasa menjunjung budaya dan keramah tamahan serta menghormati karena kelak mereka akan menjadi orangtua kita juga
3. Posisi duduk harus tegak, ini menandakan agan penuh keyakinan
4. Jangan sering gerak2in anggota bdan, krn ini menandakan kalo agan gugup
5. Menjadilah pendengar yg baik, ketika camer berbicara tataplah dengan sebaik2nya
6. Jangan pernah …